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"To John’s catalogue of crimes, after 1205 was added a final self-inflicted injury: an open

breach with the Church. Since the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170, although obliged

to tread warily, the kings of England had been allowed very much their own way in

appointments to bishoprics. In 1205, for example, and despite some resistance, John

had been able to secure Winchester for his henchman Peter des Roches. Determined

to prevent another such infringement of ecclesiastical privilege, in the following year

the pope, Innocent III, refused all inducements to promote a courtier as successor to

the late archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter. Instead… the pope secured

"promotion to Canterbury for a scholar in late middle age… Master Stephen Langton’.